Protected Cultivation of Vegetables, Flowers, and Fruits


Introduction to protected cultivation of greens and different produce

Protected cultivation is a course of of rising vegetation in a managed surroundings. This implies that the temperature, humidity, gentle, and different components may be regulated as per the requirement of the crop. Then, this assists in more healthy and bigger produce. There are a number of varieties of protected cultivation practices. Some of the used practices are compelled ventilated greenhouse, naturally ventilated Polyhouse, insect-proof internet home, shade internet home, plastic tunnel, and mulching, raised beds, trellising, and drip irrigation. These practices can be utilized independently or together, to supply a good surroundings to avoid wasting vegetation from the cruel local weather and lengthen the length of crop cultivation or low season crop manufacturing. Adoption of drip irrigation system below raised beds lined with mulch movies not solely eradicates weeds but in addition maintains moisture within the soil for a chronic interval by minimizing evaporation losses.

A information to protected cultivation of greens, fruits, and flowers

A information to protected cultivation.

It is outlined as cropping methods whereby the microclimate surrounding the plant physique is managed partially or absolutely, as per the requirement of the plant species. The numerous varieties of protecting cultivation practices have been adopting based mostly upon the prevailing climatic situation. Among them, Greenhouse or Polyhouse is extraordinarily helpful for Round-the-year vegetable cultivation in temperate situations. Protected cultivation is also referred to as managed surroundings agriculture (CEA) is extremely productive, conservative of water and land, and additionally protecting of the surroundings.

The distinction between protected cultivation and open cultivation is;

Protected cultivation was discovered to be higher than open cultivation in phrases of complete crop manufacturing. The common annual yield below the plastic greenhouse was about 53% greater than within the open subject (65.5 t/ha in contrast with 42.eight t/ha).

The important elements of protected cultivation construction are body, cladding materials, and air flow/local weather management techniques. The body must be constructed robust sufficient to maintain towards differing kinds of damaging components comparable to wind, rain/snow, soil / climatic moisture, bodily and chemical deterioration, and so forth. The cladding materials have to be clear sufficient to supply required photosynthetically energetic radiation (PAR), entrap sufficient warmth throughout chilly climate, and defend the vegetation from outdoors situations. The air flow/local weather management system have to be designed to supply congenial weather conditions for higher plant efficiency with an affordable compromise. Problems in protected cultivation are Low value of the product and lack of ample market additionally the opposite issues with vegetable manufacturing. Inadequate authorities help in time period of coaching and monetary help to farmers in sure areas make it tough in protected cultivation.

The benefits of protected cultivation are;

  • Higher productiveness leading to elevated crop yield.
  • Provides a greater rising surroundings for vegetation.
  • Protects from rain, wind, excessive temperatures and minimizes the injury of insect pests and illnesses thereby enhancing the standard and crop yield.
  • Facilitates year-round manufacturing coupled with yield enhancement by 2 to three occasions in comparison with open cultivation.
  • High water productiveness and saving important quantities of water.
  • Significant discount in pesticide use for decrease manufacturing prices and more healthy crop produce.
  • Year-round crop manufacturing, permitting farmers to take benefit of market seasonality and greater costs.
  • The crop grows more healthy, uniform high quality fruits and matures quick.
  • Fertilizer use effectivity will increase by 30% and the price of fertilizers, inter-culturing, and labor use get decreased.

Objectives of protected cultivation of greens, fruits, herbs, and flowers

  • Protection of vegetation from abiotic stress (bodily or by the non-living organism) comparable to temperature, extra or deficit water, scorching and chilly waves, and biotic components comparable to pest and illness incidences, and so forth.
  • Efficient water use with minimal weed infestation.
  • Enhancing productiveness per unit space.
  • Minimizing the use of pesticides in crop manufacturing.
  • Promotion of excessive worth, high quality horticultural produce.
  • Propagation of planting materials to enhance seed germination proportion; wholesome, uniform, disease-free planting materials, and higher hardening.
  • Year-round and low season manufacturing of flower, vegetable, and fruit crops.
  • Production of disease-free and genetically higher transplants.

At current in India, the small and medium farmers have began flower and vegetable cultivation below totally different sorts of modular protected buildings relying upon their funding capability and availability of the market of their space. Among all of the protected cultivation practices, greenhouse farming cultivation gives most advantages.

Why protected cultivation is most well-liked for greens, flowers, fruits, and herbs

The scope and significance of protected cultivation is;

The open-field manufacturing of vegetable encounters with many manufacturing constraints comparable to heavy rain, thunderstorms, extreme photo voltaic radiation, temperatures and humidity ranges above plant development optima, excessive insect pest infestation stress, and fungal illnesses. The surroundings is probably the most determinate think about horticultural crop and protected cultivation is getting used to manage the impact of environmental impact. It is a sustainable strategy towards vegetable manufacturing below antagonistic local weather. Besides, from safety to antagonistic weather conditions, the vegetable below protected cultivation yields high-quality greens in phrases of form, dimension, and colours. The microclimate may be modified contained in the poly home and sure bugs want UV gentle their imaginative and prescient function, the UV opaque masking materials for poly home helps to limit the insect to enter the home. Thus, there’s minimal use of an insecticide. The manufacturing of greens is greater than the open subject situation attributable to congenital inside microclimate and offered a greater value. Protected cultivation includes totally different units and applied sciences comparable to windbreaks, and irrigation soil mulches, and so forth, and the buildings that are a greenhouse, tunnel, row covers made the manufacturing all year long by modifying the pure surroundings. It will additional lengthen the harvest interval, improve crop yield, high quality enchancment, and hold the provision of commodities steadily.

Protected cultivation permits cultivators to supply a number of folds of a very good high quality product which is tough in regular situations attributable to climatic and constraints. If the really helpful and needful bundle of practices is adopted skillfully with exactness, any crop may be grown in any season, at anywhere utilizing protected cultivation. It permits to manage local weather (temperature, humidity, wind, and gentle depth, and so forth), atmospheric gasoline composition (primarily CO2 focus), fertilization, watering, pest and illnesses, and so forth which leads to higher plant development, higher copy, minimized dangerous results of various factors comparable to local weather and agronomy and greater manufacturing with a greater high quality of produce.

Limitations of protected cultivation of greens and different produce

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Limitations of protected cultivation of greens.

  • The excessive value of preliminary infrastructure (capital value).
  • Non-availability of expert human energy and their alternative domestically.
  • Lack of technical data of rising crops below protected buildings.
  • All the operations are intensive and require fixed effort.
  • Requires shut supervision and monitoring.
  • A number of pests and soil-borne pathogens are tough to handle.
  • Repair and upkeep are main hurdles.
  • Requires assured advertising, because the funding of assets comparable to time, effort, and funds, is predicted to be very excessive.

Production practices of greens and different produce in protected cultivation

Selection of web site – The choice of websites for taking over protected cultivation is a vital step and this must be executed with utmost care. Places having excessive rainfall and humidity should not appropriate for Protected cultivation since this encourages many foliar illnesses. Also, the areas with excessive wind velocity should not appropriate as a result of they’re more likely to injury the construction and the polyethylene sheet steadily, thereby enhancing the upkeep value of the construction. Avoid the situation or space the place heavy rains accompanied by gusty winds are prevalent to keep away from injury to the protected cultivation.

Greenhouse buildings – The greenhouse construction is designed relying on the prevailing native weather conditions. A very good quantity of differing kinds of buildings are constructed for protected farming. Though, cost-effective poly home and internet home buildings are mostly used to develop capsicum in our nation.

Net home (Shade internet home)The rising of greens within the internet home is the cost-effective technique. It is because of the simple availability of the granite pillars, which can provide good power to the construction and extremely sturdy. Net homes are constructed utilizing granite stone pillars of about 12 ft top, eight inch X 4-inch thickness. These pillars are situated at 2 ft depth contained in the soil with concrete cement grouting. The uneven and sharp edge of stone pillars on the highest must be lined with easy supplies comparable to rubber tubes to keep away from tearing of internet. A Galvanized (GI) wire grid is offered on the highest of the granite pillar to help the shade internet. Over the GI wire grid, 50% HDPE white shade internet is fastened to help one other layer of shade internet (inexperienced or black with 35% shade), (High-density polyethylene) which is movable or retractable. This further shade internet is used throughout scorching summer time middays (Feb-June), sparingly throughout the winter season and at any time when the daylight is extra between 11.00 am to three.00 pm UV stabilized 40 mesh nylon internet is rigorously offered on all sides of the online home. Construction of internet home prices about Rs.180-200 per sq. meter.

Polyhouse – This construction provides higher safety in comparison with the online home attributable to complete avoidance of rainwater entry into Polyhouse and then leaf illnesses may be simply managed. Yield is generally 15 to 20 p.c extra in Polyhouse in comparison with a internet home. Galvanized pipes are used to assemble a poly home and in some instances, farmers use wood or stone pillars that require a much less preliminary funding. Transparent UV stabilized polyethylene movie; 200-micron thickness is about Four used for masking the poly home roof. It is supplied with retractable or movable shade nets, at 11 ft top just under the buildings from floor stage. The sides of the Polyhouse construction are lined with 200-micron thick polyethylene movie to a top of three ft from the bottom stage. The remaining top of the sidewall is roofed with a 40-micron white-colored insect-proof internet from all of the 4 sides. Construction of poly home prices about Rs.500 per sq. meter.

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Polyhouse cultivation.

Net home and Polyhouse are supplied with an antechamber with two doorways constructed at reverse instructions the place entry or exit to the poly home or net-house. Care have to be taken to not open each the doorways concurrently to keep away from the entry of pests into the protected buildings. A small concrete trough of about 2-meter size, 1-meter breadth, and 2-inch depth needs to be ready between the 2 doorways of antechamber for facilitating washing legs within the disinfectant resolution (Potassium permanganate) to forestall any contamination contained in the Polyhouse or net-house.

Crops are grown below protected cultivation

The main crops grown below protected cultivation embrace floriculture crops like rose, gerbera, carnation, anthurium, Lilium, orchids, and chrysanthemum, and so forth., and the vegetable crops comparable to tomato, yellow and pink bell peppers (from the capsicum household), cucumber, leafy and unique greens, and so forth.

A excessive worth, quick length and small dimension vegetable crops are being most appropriate crops below protected cultivation. In India, notably within the hill the candy pepper, tomato, and cucumber are being raised. However, leafy greens are appropriate for protected cultivation. Cabbage, cauliflower, tomato, brinjal, capsicum, beans, pea, and coriander may be efficiently grown below protected cultivation situations at a excessive altitudinal area.

Production system for greens below protected cultivation


Production system for greens.

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Geoponics or soil system

In this technique, vegetation are grown in pure soil below protected cultivation. It has some demerits comparable to illness and insect incidence in soil. Flood irrigation water causes a excessive water desk which reduces aeration, thereby plant root development.

Soilless cultivation

The soilless cultivation has elevated considerably because of the use of methyl bromide as a soil disinfectant between crop cycles. New varieties of substrates are rising in the identical technique to improve crop yield and high quality for the vegetation grown within the soil. Several varieties of substrates are used as soilless media and it protects the crops from totally different soil infections comparable to coconut fiber, perlite, vermiculite, rock wool, peanut hulls, rice hulls, and coco peat, and so forth.


In hydroponic system vegetation are grown in nutrient and water resolution with out soil. Terrestrial may be grown with their roots within the mineral resolution solely or an intermedium, comparable to perlite or gravel.


Plants are grown in troughs, tubes, and different varieties of chambers, and roots are hung in air sprayed with nutrient mist. So, it simply absorbs vitamins and oxygen. This technique has much less likelihood of root illnesses.

Temperature upkeep and water administration in protected cultivation

The a number of crops may be grown in a variety of temperature, however for higher plant development and improvement particular person crops requires a particular vary of temperature. It is especially doable below protected cultivation.

Water is a very powerful issue that impacts the manufacturing system of crops. It will not be doable to develop the crop throughout the excessive rainfall, as greens are succulent and tender, excessive rainfall will drop the standard of crops. To cut back the implications of excessive rainfall and excessive wind, protected cultivation is probably the most appropriate approach. It will produce a top quality of vegetation all year long.

Emerging challenges for protected cultivation in India


Challenges for protected cultivation.

The protected cultivation in India is going through quite a bit of constraints such because the loss of productive soils by means of city intrusion, loss of low-cost labor, upkeep of temperature, humidity, gentle administration, fertigation, irrigation system, lack of correct data of harvesting, steady electrical energy, and water provide, unavailability of market demand varieties, low risk-taking availability, lack of motivation, lack of appropriate value coverage and lack of created amenities. Then, these challenges have an effect on the progress of protected cultivation in India.