Kharif and Rabi Crops in India – A Full Guide


Introduction to Kharif and Rabi crops

All crops in India don’t develop in the identical season. Different crops have particular necessities and appropriate weather conditions. Based on the weather conditions, crops in India are categorized into two classes;

A step-by-step information to Kharif and Rabi crops in India

The crops which are sown in the wet season are referred to as Kharif crops and it’s also referred to as the summer time or monsoon crop in India. The crops which are sown in the winter season are referred to as Rabi crops are often known as the “winter crop” in Pakistan and India. The Rabi means, when the crop is harvested and crops which are grown in the winter season, from November to April are referred to as Rabi Crops. Some of the vital Rabi crops are wheat, barley, rapeseed, peas, gram, and mustard.

Kharif crops in India 

The Kharif cropping season begins with the onset of the Indian subcontinent’s monsoon. Kharif crops are sown in the beginning of the primary monsoon rains (depends upon area to area). Harvesting season begins from the third week of September to October (the precise harvesting dates differ from area to area). Unlike Rabi crops, Kharif crops require good rainfall. The output of those crops primarily relies upon upon the time and quantity of rainwater. Paddy, Maize, Bajra, Millet, Cotton, Ragi, and Jowar are a number of of the Kharif crops grown in India. The Kharif crops are related to the monsoon season. They are sown in June and July and are harvested in autumn months which means in September and October.

Kharif crops are domesticated crops like rice which are cultivated and harvested in India. Monsoon rains could start as early as May in some elements of the Indian subcontinent, and crops are harvested from the third week of September to October, once more relying upon the area and the crops.

Pearl Millet Crop.

The Kharif season varies by crop, beginning on the earliest in May and ending on the newest in January. In India, the Kharif season is taken into account to start out in June and to finish in October. Kharif crops are sown with the start of the primary rains throughout the creation of the south-west monsoon season, and they’re harvested on the finish of monsoon season (October-November). These Kharif crops are depending on the amount of rainwater as effectively it’s timing. Too a lot, too little or rain on the flawed time can lay waste to the entire yr’s efforts. Kharif crops stand in distinction to the Rabi crops, and that are cultivated throughout the dry season.

Common Kharif crops are;

Cereal crops – Rice, Bajra, Jowar, Maize (corn), Millet, and Soybean.

Fruit crops – Muskmelon, Sugarcane, Watermelon, and Orange.

Seed/Grain crops – Arhar (Tur), Black gram (Urad), Cotton, Cowpea (Chavala), Green gram (Moong), Groundnut, Guar, Moth bean, Mung bean, Sesame, and Urad bean.

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Groundnut Crop.

Vegetable crops – Bitter gourd (karela), Bottle Gourd, Brinjal, Chili, Ladyfingers, Sponge Gourd, Tinda, Tomato, Turmeric, and French Beans.

Rabi crops

Rabi crops or Rabi harvest are crops which are sown in winter and harvested in the spring in India and Pakistan. The time period Rabi is derived from the Arabic phrase for “spring”, which is used in the Indian subcontinent, the place it’s the spring harvest can also be referred to as the “winter crop”.

Rabi crops are referred to as winter crops and they’re grown in October or November. The Rabi crops are then harvested in spring. These crops want frequent irrigation as a result of these are grown in dry areas. Wheat, gram, barley, peas, pulses, mustard, and rapeseed are among the main Rabi crops grown in India. The crops are grown with rainwater that has percolated into the bottom or utilizing irrigation. Good rain in winter spoils the Rabi crops however is nice for Kharif season crops.

The main Rabi crop in India is wheat and adopted by barley, mustard, sesame, and peas. The agriculture crops fashioned in India are seasonal and extremely depending on these two monsoons.

Common Rabi crops are;

Cereal crops – Barley, Gram, Rapeseed, Mustard, Oat, Wheat, and Bajra.

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Kharif and Rabi crops

Fruit crops – Almond, Banana, Ber, Dates, Grapes, Guava, Kinnow, Lemon/Citrus, Mandarin orange, Mangoes, Mulberries, and Orange.

Legumes/lentils (dal) crops – Chickpea Kulthi, Lobias, Masoor, Mung Bean, Pigeon Pea, Toria, and Uradbean.

Seed/Grain crops – Alfalfa, Coriander, Cumin, Fenugreek, Linseed Mustard, Isabgol, Sunflower, Bengal Gram, Red Gram.

Vegetable crops – Beans, Beetroot, Brinjal, Broccoli, Cabbage, Capsicum, Carrot, Cauliflowers, Chickpea,  Fenugreek, Garlic, Ladyfinger, Lettuce, Pea, Onion, Potato, Radish, Spinach, Sweet Potato, Tomato, and Turnip.

Differences between Kharif and Rabi crops

Some of the important thing variations between Kharif and Rabi crops are;

  • Kharif crops are additionally referred to as as monsoon crops or autumn crops, whereas Rabi crops are often known as spring or winter crops.
  • Kharif crops are affected by rainfall, as these crops want a lot of water to develop. On the opposite, Rabi crops would not have any results on monsoon.
  • Kharif crops are the crops which are sown in the beginning of the wet season, which suggests between April and May. While Rabi crops are the crops which are sown on the finish of monsoon or in the beginning of winter season, e.g. between September and October.
  • Favorable sowing season for the Kharif crops is June – July, whereas Rabi crops are sown in the month’s March – April
  • Harvesting month of the Kharif crops is September – October, whereas Rabi crops are harvested in March – April.
  • Kharif crops depend upon rainfall patterns. While Rabi crops are usually not affected by the rainfall.
  • Kharif crops want scorching climate and a considerable amount of water to develop. Whereas, Rabi crops want a heat local weather for germination of seed and chilly local weather for progress.
  • In the case of Kharif crops, moist and heat climate and shorter day size are favorable for the flowering, whereas in the case of Rabi crops want dry and chilly climate and longer day size is useful for flowering.
  • Major Kharif crops are Rice, Maize, Cotton, Jowar, And Bajra, Etc. Whereas Major Rabi Crops Are Wheat, Gram, Peas, And Barley, Etc.
  • In Kharif crops flowering requires shorter day size. While Rabi crops flowering requires longer day size.

Some of the vital Kharif crops in India


India is the second-largest producer of rice crop in the world after China. India accounts for about 20% of the world’s rice manufacturing. It is a staple meals pan India, and its cultivation can also be widespread throughout the nation. It is probably the most vital Kharif crop of India and it’s grown in rain-fed areas with scorching and humid climates, particularly the jap and southern elements of India. Rice requires a temperature of 16–20°C throughout the rising season and 18–32°C throughout ripening. It wants rainfall from 59–79 inches and wants a flooded area throughout the progress interval.

Rice prominently grows in excessive rainfall areas. It requires common temperatures of 25°C and a minimal of 100 cms of rainfall. It’s historically grown in waterlogged rice paddy fields. Northeast plains and coastal areas are the main rice-producing areas of the nation. Rice is finest suited to areas of excessive temperature, excessive humidity, extended sunshine, and assured water provide. A temperature vary of 20 to 37.5°C is required for its optimum progress. The crop requires the next temperature at tillering however the temperature requirement for blossoming ranges between 26.5 and 29.5°C. Rice can develop effectively on soils with low permeability and over a variety of soil response pH ranges 5 to 9. Normally, the loamy soils are one of the best for rice cultivation.


After rice and wheat, maize can also be probably the most vital cereal crop in India. Cultivation of maize crop is targeted in the areas of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. It requires temperatures in the vary of 21°C to 27°C and rainfall of between 50 to 75 cms.

Maize crop requires appreciable moisture and heat from germination to flowering. The best suited temperature for germination is 21°C and for progress is 32°C. Proper drainage of extra water throughout rains is important to get good crop yield. Maize thrives higher on effectively-drained, sandy-loam to silty-loam soils.

Some of the vital Rabi crops in India


India is the second-largest producer of wheat in the world and it’s extremely depending on Rabi crop for its agricultural earnings. It is a staple meals amongst Indians, particularly in the northern areas. It requires cool temperatures throughout its rising season in the vary of about 14°c to 18°C. Rainfall of about 50 to 90 cms is most preferrred. Though, throughout harvesting season in the spring, wheat requires vibrant sunshine and barely hotter climate.

Indian wheat is essentially a smooth or medium-arduous, medium protein, white bread wheat, considerably just like U.S. arduous white wheat. Wheat grown in central and western India is difficult, with excessive protein and excessive gluten content material. India additionally produces round to 1.2 million tons of durum wheat, largely in the state of Madhya Pradesh.

It is grown in quite a lot of soils of India. Soils with a clay loam soil or loam texture, good construction, and reasonable water holding capability are perfect for wheat cultivation. Care have to be taken to keep away from very porous and excessively drained soils. The soil have to be impartial in its response. Heavy soils with poor construction and poor drainage are usually not acceptable as wheat is delicate to waterlogging. It could be efficiently grown on lighter soils supplied their water and nutrient holding capability are improved.



Mustard Rabi Crop.

Mustard Crop. Mustard belongs to the ‘Cruciferae’ household and the oil extracted from mustard is edible, and so, in India, we use mustard for cooking functions. Mustard requires a subtropical local weather to develop which is dry and cool climate. The temperature stage to develop mustard is between 10°C to 25°C and Rajasthan has the largest manufacturing of mustard in India.

The mustard crop is a cool-season crop that may be grown in a brief rising season. Varieties of yellow mustard mature in 80 to 85 days whereas brown and oriental varieties require 90 to 95 days. Seedlings are considerably tolerant of delicate frosts after emergence, however extreme frosts can destroy the crop. Mustard, notably the brown and oriental varieties, has a partial drought tolerance between that of wheat and rapeseed. Moisture stress attributable to scorching, dry situations throughout the flowering interval steadily causes decrease crop yields.